March 27, 2024
In 2024, the world finds itself at a crossroads with an unprecedented number of elections slated to take place across diverse nations, comprising more than 40% of the global population. These electoral contests, ranging from the powerhouse democracies of the United States, India, and the United Kingdom to the more fraught political landscapes of South Sudan and Russia, hold the potential to shape the trajectory of global governance and the rule of law in the 21st century. This article delves into the dynamics of these global elections, their impact on the global order, and the legal intricacies influencing the UK’s political landscape.

The Global Electoral Landscape: Challenges and Opportunities

The year 2024 marks a momentous occasion with a multitude of nations exercising their democratic rights through elections. 60 countries or 4 billion people will be heading to the polls. However, this democratic fervour unfolds against a backdrop of rising authoritarianism and challenges to liberal democracy worldwide. From the aggression of leaders like China’s Xi Jinping and Russia’s Vladimir Putin to the erosion of civil liberties in various regions, the vitality of democracy faces formidable threats.

Despite these challenges, there remains a glimmer of hope as evidenced by instances of democratic resilience and progress. While some nations experience setbacks in political rights and civil liberties, others witness strides towards democratic governance. The delicate balance between authoritarian tendencies and democratic aspirations underscores the significance of these elections in shaping the future global order.

The UK’s Electoral Landscape: Navigating Challenges and Transitions

Amidst this global frenzy, the United Kingdom prepares for its own general election. The political landscape in the United Kingdom is marked by uncertainty and tension as the country braces for a pivotal general election. Prime Minister Rishi Sunak has hinted at the possibility of a general election during the second half of 2024, leveraging parliamentary powers to delay the inevitable amidst internal conflicts within the Conservative Party.

Sunak’s strategy focuses on economic revival, tax cuts, and a tough stance on immigration to bolster support for his party. However, the Labour Party, led by Keir Starmer, views Sunak’s delay tactics as a temporary respite, confident in their prospects of returning to power after a 14-year hiatus. Opinion polls consistently favour Labour, but Starmer remains wary of low voter turnout potentially hindering their path to a majority.

The political turbulence in the UK reflects broader trends of electoral volatility and public discontent. The Conservative Party’s long-standing tenure faces challenges compounded by Brexit fallout, leadership turnover, the COVID-19 pandemic, and economic instability. Meanwhile, Sunak’s foreign policy decisions add another layer of complexity to the electoral calculus, shaping public opinion and potentially influencing the outcome of the upcoming election.

The general election, anticipated in the second half of 2024, holds significant implications for the future trajectory of British politics. Forecasts indicate a tight race between the Conservatives and Labour, with the latter enjoying a consistent lead in opinion polls. However, concerns persist over voter turnout and the impact of unforeseen events on electoral outcomes, underscoring the uncertainty surrounding this critical juncture in UK politics.

Climate Policy

The impending general election in the United Kingdom holds significant importance as climate change takes centre stage as a core issue, unlike in previous elections. The environment has risen in prominence among voters’ concerns, alongside the economy, healthcare, and immigration. However, there is a growing divide between the major parties regarding green policies.

The Conservative Party, in particular, faces scrutiny over its environmental record. While celebrating achievements such as halving greenhouse gas emissions since 1990, the party has been criticised for focusing on easier aspects of decarbonisation, such as closing coal-fired power plants, while neglecting more challenging areas like home heating and agriculture. Despite commitments to reduce emissions, setbacks such as delays in banning new gas boilers and sluggish electric vehicle sales have raised concerns.

Prime Minister Rishi Sunak’s government has faced criticism for potential backtracking on climate commitments, including considering scrapping regulations to promote heat pumps and approving new oil and gas licences in the North Sea. These actions provide ammunition for opposition parties to target the Conservatives on environmental issues.

However, the Labour Party also faces challenges in its climate agenda. Leader Sir Keir Starmer recently scaled back the party’s decarbonisation plans, opting for a less ambitious spending commitment over the next five years. While Labour still aims for significant decarbonisation, including plans to decarbonise electricity by 2030 and establish a publicly-owned clean energy company, critics question the clarity and feasibility of these proposals.

The upcoming election is likely to see a heated debate on climate policies, with both major parties facing scrutiny over their environmental credentials. While optimists hope for an invigorating discussion on climate strategies, the reality may be a continuation of divisive political rhetoric, with each side accusing the other of prioritising either environmental concerns or the struggles of the average voter. As the political consensus on climate continues to fracture, the path forward remains uncertain.


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Geopolitical Implications: Shifting Alliances and Power Dynamics

While the focus of 2024’s electoral spectacle often centres on individual nations, it is crucial to zoom out and assess the broader implications for the global order. Beyond the confines of national borders, these elections have ripple effects that reverberate across continents, influencing geopolitical dynamics, economic trajectories, and legal frameworks.

The outcome of elections in key global players such as the United States, India, and Russia holds the potential to reshape geopolitical alliances and power dynamics on the world stage. The policies and priorities of newly elected leaders will influence international relations, trade agreements, and security arrangements, shaping the course of global governance for years to come.

As the incumbent Narendra Modi-led Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) vies for a third consecutive term in India, the outcomes in other nations hold significant implications for the global economy, trade, and diplomacy. Notably, the United States braces for a monumental showdown between President Joe Biden and former President Donald Trump, shaping the discourse around the “future of democracy.” Meanwhile, Taiwan stands at a critical juncture, with President Lai Ching-te’s resolute stance against Chinese pressure amplifying concerns of military escalation. In Russia, President Vladimir Putin’s virtually assured retention of power in the upcoming presidential election underscores entrenched political dynamics amidst concerns of democratic erosion.

For the United Kingdom, navigating these shifting geopolitical sands presents both challenges and opportunities. As a key player in international affairs, the UK’s diplomatic engagements and foreign policy decisions are closely scrutinised. The outcome of its own general election will not only determine domestic policy directions but also impact its standing and influence in global affairs. 

List of major elections in 2024:

  1. India: General elections – Dates to be announced
  2. United States: Presidential elections – November 5
  3. Russia: Presidential elections – March 3
  4. Mexico: Presidential elections – June 2
  5. South Africa: Legislative elections – Between May and August
  6. Indonesia: Presidential and legislative elections – February 14
  7. Brazil: Presidential and legislative elections – Dates to be announced
  8. Germany: Federal elections – Dates to be announced
  9. France: Presidential and legislative elections – Dates to be announced
  10. Italy: Parliamentary elections – Dates to be announced
  11. Japan: General elections – Dates to be announced
  12. Pakistan: General elections – February 8
  13. Nigeria: General elections – Dates to be announced
  14. Turkey: General elections – Dates to be announced
  15. European Union – Parliamentary elections – June 6 – 8 


As the world braces for the largest electoral spectacle in 2024, the implications reverberate far beyond national borders. From the corridors of power in the United States to the streets of South Sudan, the choices made by voters carry profound consequences for the future of democracy and the rule of law. Ultimately, the global order stands at a critical juncture, where the collective voice of citizens shapes the course of history. 

By Mallika Singhal


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