December 14, 2023
In a pivotal moment for digital governance, the United Kingdom passed the Online Safety Act, a groundbreaking piece of legislation, in October this year. Spearheaded by former minister Jeremy Wright, this law responds to the pressing need for regulating the internet, particularly in light of the increasing influence of social media platforms as de facto arbiters of online speech. Read more about the historical context, key provisions, controversies, and future challenges associated with the Online Safety Act.


The journey toward the Online Safety Act began in 2019, when the UK government, recognising the inherent challenges of self-regulation, embarked on a mission to address harmful online content. The initial white paper outlined the government’s approach, acknowledging social media platforms’ role in shaping online discourse. Jeremy Wright, reflecting on the necessity of government involvement, underscored the limitations of self-regulation, leading to the drafting of the bill.

Legislative Evolution: From Bill to Act

The Online Safety Bill, initially acclaimed for its comprehensive approach, underwent significant changes during its journey through Parliament, eventually emerging as the Online Safety Act. While the UK government dubbed its initiatives as “world-beating,” the Act faced a diminished global impact with the European Union’s Digital Services Act coming into force in August 2023. The Act, comprising over 200 clauses, now grants platforms a “duty of care” and addresses a spectrum of illegal content, reflecting the evolving digital landscape.

Provisions and Controversies

The Online Safety Act introduces a multitude of provisions aimed at creating a safer online environment. Platforms, ranging from Big Tech to smaller messaging apps, are now required to comply with a broad range of new obligations. Age verification, prevention of underage access to inappropriate content, and swift removal of illegal posts are among the Act’s key provisions. However, Section 122, which seemingly compels companies to scan users’ messages for illegal material, stands out as a highly divisive and controversial element, fueling concerns about privacy, encryption, and potential abuse of surveillance powers.

Regulatory Landscape and Enforcement

Enforcement of the Online Safety Act falls under the purview of Ofcom, the UK’s telecommunications regulator. The phased implementation involves consultations on responding to illegal content, obligations around child safety, and preventing underage access to pornography. Companies failing to comply face substantial fines, providing a strong regulatory framework to ensure adherence to the Act’s stipulations.

Criticisms, Omissions, and Unresolved Issues

While the Act addresses specific illegal content, criticisms abound regarding its failure to tackle disinformation and misinformation at scale. The legislation’s development coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic, providing insight into the societal impact of misinformation on public health. The Act’s exclusion of proposals to combat content dangers at scale has drawn criticism for its narrow focus on individual pieces of harmful content. Additionally, unresolved issues related to encryption raise questions about the Act’s potential impact on user privacy.

Encryption And Privacy Concerns

Section 122’s implications for end-to-end encryption, particularly for platforms like WhatsApp and Signal, have sparked intense debate. Threats of companies leaving the country and concerns about compromising user privacy have underscored the delicate balance required between ensuring online safety and preserving fundamental rights. The Act’s overlap with the Investigatory Powers Act further intensifies fears of an unprecedented expansion of surveillance powers.


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Future Implications And Ongoing Challenges

As the Online Safety Act transitions into law, its implications on online communication, privacy, and governance are still unfolding. Striking a balance between ensuring online safety, protecting free speech, and preserving user privacy will likely be an ongoing challenge. The intersection of technology, regulation, and individual rights poses challenges for both platforms and regulators, making it imperative to adapt regulations to address emerging threats effectively.

A Case Study for Aspiring Jurists

For law students, the passage of the Online Safety Act offers a rich case study, providing invaluable insights into the dynamic intersection of technology, law, and societal welfare. The nuanced nature of this legislation presents an opportunity to understand the legal complexities that arise when crafting digital regulations: 

Balancing Fundamental Rights

 The Online Safety Act exemplifies the delicate balance required when legislating in areas that impact fundamental rights. Aspiring jurists can dissect the challenges posed by Section 122, scrutinising how it navigates the intricate terrain between ensuring online safety and respecting individual privacy. Analysing this balance will be crucial for future legal professionals engaged in crafting legislation that intersects with technological advancements.

The Evolution of Regulatory Frameworks

 The transformation of the Online Safety Bill into the Online Safety Act provides a real-time case study on how legislative frameworks evolve in response to societal changes and global developments. Legal students can explore the legislative journey, from the initial white paper to the final enactment, gaining insights into the iterative nature of lawmaking. 

Unresolved Legal Issues

 The unresolved issues surrounding encryption in the Online Safety Act offer legal students a glimpse into the challenges of crafting laws that grapple with cutting-edge technology. Delving into the debates surrounding encryption, students can explore the potential ramifications of legislation on individual rights and the complexities of regulating emerging technologies.

Lessons in Regulatory Enforcement

 The role of Ofcom in enforcing the Online Safety Act provides a practical study in regulatory enforcement. Aspiring legal professionals can analyse the mechanisms in place, the phased implementation strategy, and the potential implications of fines for non-compliance, gaining insights into the practical aspects of enforcing digital regulations.


The passage of the Online Safety Act represents a significant milestone in the UK’s attempt to regulate the internet and create a safer online environment. However, controversies surrounding encryption, criticisms about content oversight, and ongoing challenges indicate the complex nature of navigating the digital landscape.

As technology continues to evolve, policymakers must adapt regulations to effectively address emerging threats while safeguarding fundamental rights. The Online Safety Act is a crucial chapter in the ongoing narrative of internet governance, reflecting the dynamic interplay between digital advancements, regulatory frameworks, and societal expectations.

Commercial Awareness Questions

Check out our round-up of commercial awareness questions to challenge you to look more deeply at the legal issues addressed in this article.

  • How might the enactment of the UK’s Online Safety Act influence other countries in terms of shaping their own regulatory frameworks for online safety?
  • How do you think major tech companies are strategizing to comply with the new regulations outlined in the Online Safety Act? What changes or adaptations might they need to make in their operations to adhere to these regulations?
  • How might the Act set precedents for future legal cases or influence the direction of global debates around online privacy and safety?
  • Are there potential market opportunities or areas for innovation that arise from the Online Safety Act?


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